Did abrupt climate change affect earliest civilizations in the Middle East?
Climate change is currently being pegged as one of the major dangers to humanity and life on planet Earth, but it seems that throughout history of our planet, this phenomenon has affected humans as well as animals and caused major changes on the Earth.
In a new study, researchers led by scientists from the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science found evidence that some of the earliest civilizations in the Middle East and the Fertile Crescent may have been affected by abrupt climate change.
Through the study the researchers suggests that though socioeconomic changes bring about major changes in our lives, influence from nature can’t be sidelined including those from abrupt climate changes.
Researchers found through their study that during the first half of the last interglacial period known as the Holocene epoch, which began about 12,000 years ago and continues today, the Middle East most likely experienced wetter conditions in comparison with the last 6,000 years, when the conditions were drier and dustier.
“Evidence for wet early Holocene was previously found in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea region, North and East African lakes and cave deposits from Southwest Asia, and attributed to higher solar insolation during this period,” said Ali Pourmand, assistant professor of marine geosciences at the UM Rosenstiel School, who supervised the project. “Our study, however, is the first of its kind from the interior of West Asia and unique in its resolution and multi-proxy approach.”
The Fertile Crescent, a region in west Asia that extends from Iran and the Arabian Peninsula to the eastern Mediterranean Sea and northern Egypt is one of the most climatically dynamic regions in the world and is widely considered the birthplace of early human civilizations.
“The high-resolution nature of this record afforded us the rare opportunity to examine the influence of abrupt climate change on early human societies. We see that transitions in several major civilizations across this region, as evidenced by the available historical and archeological records, coincided with episodes of high atmospheric dust; higher fluxes of dust are attributed to drier conditions across the region over the last 5,000 years,” said Arash Sharifi, Ph.D. candidate at the department of marine geosciences and the lead author of the study.
The researchers investigated climate variability and changes in paleoenvironmental conditions during the last 13,000 years based on a high-resolution (sub-decadal to centennial) peat record from Neor Lake in Northwest Iran. Abrupt climate changes occur in the span of years to decades.