NASA’s MESSENGER completes 4,000th orbit of Mercury; moves closer to planet

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NASA has revealed that its MESSENGER spacecraft has completed a whopping 4,000 orbits around Mercury on March 25 and continues to orbit the planet moving closer to Mercury more than ever before.

The orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission, which was originally designed to collect data for one Earth year, just completed its fourth year of operation around Mercury. The mission has received a final extension to allow scientists to gather specific low-altitude data over an additional several weeks.

Mission Operations Manager Andy Calloway of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) said that when they completed their first Mercury flyby on January 14, 2008, after months of preparations and testing, they were amazed and perhaps even a little skeptical when the science team told them that the orbital phase could be characterized as two flybys of data collection every Earth day (and eventually three per day starting in April 2012).

Calloway added that now that they have surpassed 4,000 orbits and more than 17 Mercury years since Mercury orbit insertion, they know just what was meant by that prediction.

He continued that requisite optimization tools and techniques, such as the SciBox science planning tool, customized downlink rate stepping during Deep Space Network contacts, and automated prioritization of data playback with the use of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) file delivery protocol, to name just a few, have captured more than 275,000 images and downlinked more than four Earth years of data from their comprehensive suite of instruments.

The MESSENGER milestone of 4,000 orbits around Mercury in just over four years is a testament to the talent and dedication of the teams that designed, built, and operated a spacecraft for which the original plan was to complete about 740 orbits during a single year after Mercury orbit insertion, said Lead Engineer James McAdams, adding that an exemplary science team and supportive NASA sponsorship and oversight have made the most of the mission extensions, leading to numerous new insights into the processes that formed and subsequently transformed our solar system’s nearest planet to the Sun.